Select the term that describes what you are experiencing.
CRACKING & FLAKING
|FOAMING & CRATERING
POOR SCRUB RESISTANCE
POOR STAIN RESISTANCE
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Applying oil-based or alkyd paint over a damp or wet surface. Moisture seeping into the home through the exterior walls (less likely with latex paint). Exposure of latex paint film to high humidity or moisture shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was inadequate surface preparation.
SOLUTION: If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove blisters by scraping, and sanding, and repaint with a quality acrylic latex interior paint. If blisters go down to the substrate: Remove the source of moisture, if possible. Repair loose caulking; consider installing vents or exhaust fans. Remove blisters as above, remembering to prime before applying the top coat BLOCKING Undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together (e.g., a door sticking to the jamb).
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing doors or windows. Use of low-quality semi-gloss or gloss paints
SOLUTION: Use top quality semi-gloss or gloss acrylic latex paint. Low-quality latex paints can have poor block resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Follow paint label instructions regarding dry times. Acrylic latex paints generally have better early block resistance than vinyl latex paints or alkyd or oil-based paints; however, alkyds develop superior block resistance over time. Application of talcum powder can relieve persistent blocking.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of flat paint in highly trafficked areas, where a higher sheen level would be desirable. Frequent washing and spot cleaning. Objects (furniture, for example) rubbing against the walls. Use of lower grades of paint with poor stain and scrub resistance (see Poor Stain Resistance and Poor Scrub Resistance)
SOLUTION: Paint heavy wear areas that require regular cleaning (e.g., doors, window sills and trim) with a top quality latex paint, because this type of paint offers both durability and easier cleaning capability. In high-traffic areas, choose a semigloss or gloss rather than a flat sheen level. Clean painted surfaces with a soft cloth or sponge and non-abrasive cleansers; rinse with clean water.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality caulk. Use of the wrong type of caulk for a particular application (e.g., using latex or vinyl caulk in areas where there is prolonged contact with water or considerable movement of the caulked surfaces).
SOLUTION: Use a quality water-based all-acrylic or siliconized acrylic caulk if prolonged contact with water is not anticipated. These caulks are flexible enough to adapt to minor fluctuations in the substrate, stretching in gaps that widen slightly over time. They also adhere to a wide range of interior building materials, including wood, ceramic tile, concrete, glass, plaster, bare aluminum, brick, and plastic. Note: Silicone caulk should not be painted.
CRACKING & FLAKING: The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat as a result of aging, which ultimately will lead to complete failure of the paint. In its early stages, the problem appears as hairline cracks; in its later stages, flaking occurs.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility. Over thinning or overspreading the paint. Inadequate surface preparation, or applying the paint to bare wood without first applying a primer. Excessive hardening and embrittlement of alkyd paint as the paint job ages.
SOLUTION: Remove loose and flaking paint with a scraper or wire brush, sanding the surface and feathering the edges. If the flaking occurs in multiple layers of paint, use of a filler may be necessary. Prime bare wood areas before repainting. Use of a quality primer and top coat should prevent a recurrence of the problem.
FOAMING & CRATERING: Formation of bubbles (foaming) and resulting small, round concave depressions (cratering) when bubbles break in a paint film, during paint application and drying. POSSIBLE CAUSES: Shaking a partially filled can of paint. Use of low-quality paint or very old latex paints. ¥ Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly. Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint. Applying a gloss or
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Shaking a partially filled can of paint. Use of low-quality paint or very old latex paints. ¥ Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly. Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint. Applying a gloss or semi-gloss paint over a porous surface.
SOLUTION: All paints will foam to some degree during application; however, higher quality paints are formulated so the bubbles break while the paint is still wet, allowing for good flow and appearance. Avoid excessive rolling or brushing of the paint or using paint that is more than a year old. Apply gloss and semi-gloss paints with a short nap roller, and apply an appropriate sealer or primer before using such paint over a porous surface. Problem areas should be sanded before repainting.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Failure to maintain a "wet edge" when painting. Use of a low solids "economy" paint.
SOLUTION: Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then back into the just-painted surface. This technique (brushing or rolling from "wet to dry" rather than vice versa) will produce a smooth uniform appearance. It is also wise to work in manageable size areas; plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner. Using a top quality acrylic latex paint makes it easier to avoid lapping problems because higher solids (pigments and binder) content makes lapped areas less noticeable. If the substrate is very porous, it may need a primer/sealer to prevent paint from drying too quickly and reducing wet edge time. Alkyd paints generally have superior wet edge properties.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive little or no direct sunlight (e.g., bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms). Use of an alkyd or oil-based paint, or lower quality latex paint. Failure to prime bare wood surface before applying the paint. Painting over a substrate or coating on which mildew has not been removed.
SOLUTION: Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach to the area; if it is bleached away, the discolorant is probably mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water), while wearing rubber gloves and eye protection. Rinse thoroughly. To protect against mildew, use a quality latex paint, and clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Paint applied too thickly, usually over a porous surface. Paint applied too thickly, to improve inherent poor hiding (coverage) of a lower quality paint. Paint is allowed to build up in corners upon application.
SOLUTION: Remove coating by scraping and sanding. Prime and repaint, using a quality latex paint. Mud-cracked areas can also be repaired by sanding the surface smooth before repainting with a quality latex paint. This type of paint is likely to prevent recurrence of mud cracking because it is relatively more flexible than alkyd paint, oil-based paint, and ordinary latex paint. Quality paints have a higher solids content, which reduces the tendency to mud crack. They also have very good application and hiding properties, which minimize the tendency to apply too thick a coat of paint.
PICTURE FRAMING: An effect of non-uniform color that can appear when a wall is painted with a roller but is brushed at the corners. The brushed areas generally appear darker, resembling the "frame" of a "picture." Also, sprayed areas may be darker than neighboring sections that are brushed or rolled. Picture framing can also refer to sheen effects.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Usually a hiding (coverage) effect. Brushing will generally result in lower spread rates than rolling, producing a thicker film and more hiding. Adding colorant to a non-tintable paint or using the wrong type or level of colorant, resulting in variation in color, depending on the method of application.
SOLUTION: Make sure that spread rates with brushes and rollers are similar. Don't cut in the entire room before roller coating. Work in smaller sections of the room to maintain a "wet edge." With tinted paints, be sure the correct colorant-base combinations are used. Factory colors, as well as in-store tints, should be thoroughly shaken at the time of sale.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of low-quality paint. Use of low-quality tools/wrong roller cover. Use of an improper combination of tinting base and tinting color. Poor flow and leveling (see Poor Flow/Leveling). Use of a paint that is much lighter in color than the substrate, or that primarily contains low-hiding organic pigments. Application of paint at a higher spread rate than recommended.
SOLUTION: If the substrate is significantly darker or is a patterned wallpaper, it should be primed before applying a top coat. Use a quality paint for better hiding and flow. Use quality tools; use the recommended roller nap, if rolling. Follow manufacturer's recommendation on spread rate; if using tinted paint, use the correct tinting base. Where a low-hiding organic color must be used, apply a primer first.
POOR SCRUB RESISTANCE: Tendency of the paint film to take on the imprint of an object that is placed on it (e.g., a shelf, table, windowsill or countertop with books, dishes and other objects on them).
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of low-quality semi-gloss or gloss paint. Putting a painted surface back into use before the paint has fully dried.
SOLUTION: Use top quality acrylic semi-gloss or gloss latex paint. Low-quality latex semi-gloss and gloss paints can have poor print resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Acrylic latex paints generally have better print resistance than vinyl latex paints. Fully cured alkyd paints also have excellent print resistance. Make sure the recommended "cure" time is allowed for the paint before it is put into service. Cool or humid conditions require more curing time.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality paint that is porous in nature. Application of paint to un-primed substrate.
SOLUTION: Higher quality latex paints contain more binder, which helps prevent stains from penetrating the painted surface, allowing for easy removal. Priming new surfaces provide the maximum film thickness of a premium top coat, providing very good stain removability.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Uneven spread rate. Failure to properly prime a porous surface, or surface with varying degrees of porosity. Poor application resulting in lapping (see Lapping).
SOLUTION: New substrates should be primed/sealed before applying the top coat to ensure a uniformly porous surface. Without the use of a primer or sealer, a second coat of paint will more likely be needed. Make sure to apply paint from "wet to dry" to prevent lapping. Often, applying an additional coat will even out sheen irregularities.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of exterior paint on an interior surface. Use of lower grades of latex paints.
SOLUTION: Higher quality paints are formulated to minimize spattering. Using high-quality rollers which have proper resiliency further reduces pattering. In some cases, a quality wall paint may be preferred for ceiling work, for maximum spatter resistance. Overloading the roller with paint will result in excess spatter, as will overworking the paint once it is applied to a substrate. Working in three-foot square sections, applying the paint in a zigzag "M" or "W" pattern and then filling in the pattern will also lessen the likelihood of spattering.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Application of a heavy coat of paint. Application in excessively humid and/or cool conditions. Application of over thinned paint. Airless spraying with the gun too close to the substrate being painted.
SOLUTION: If the paint is still wet, immediately brush out or re-roll to redistribute the excess evenly. If the paint has dried, sand, and reapply a new coat of top quality paint. Correct any unfavorable conditions: Do not thin the paint; avoid cool or humid conditions; sand glossy surfaces. Paint should be applied at its recommended spread rate; avoid "heaping on" the paint. Two coats of paint at the recommended spread rate are better than one heavy coat, which can also lead to sagging. Consider removing doors to paint them supported horizontally.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using alkyd or oil-based paints). Painting during extremely hot weather or cool damp weather, which causes the paint film to dry faster on top than on the bottom. Exposing uncured paint to high humidity levels. Painting over a contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax). SOLUTION: Scrape or sand substrate to remove
SOLUTION: Scrape or sand substrate to remove the wrinkled coating. If using a primer, allow it to dry completely before applying top coat. Repaint (avoiding temperature/humidity extremes), applying an even coat of top quality interior paint.
POSSIBLE CAUSES: Oxidation of alkyd or oil-based paint or varnish. Heat from stoves, radiators and heating ducts. Lack of light (e.g., behind pictures or appliances, inside closets, etc.).
SOLUTION: Top quality latex paints do not tend to yellow, nor does non-yellowing varnish. Alkyd paints, because of their curing mechanism, do tend to yellow, particularly in areas that are protected from sunlight.
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